Test selection works a little differently from other resource selection. This makes it very easy to:
- run tests on a particular model
- run tests on all models in a subdirectory
- run tests on all models upstream / downstream of a model, etc.
Like all resource types, tests can be selected directly, by methods and operators that capture one of their attributes: their name, properties, tags, etc.
Unlike other resource types, tests can also be selected indirectly. If a selection method or operator includes a test's parent(s), the test will also be selected.
This can be complex for tests with multiple parents (e.g.
relationships, or custom tests that
ref() multiple models). To prevent tests from running when they aren't wanted, a test will be indirectly selected only if ALL of its parents are included by the selection criteria. If any parent is missing, that test won't run. On the other hand, if ANY parent is excluded, the test will be aggressively excluded as well.
We've included lots of examples below:
Run generic (schema) tests only:
$ dbt test --models test_type:schema
Run bespoke (data) tests only:
$ dbt test --models test_type:data
In both cases,
test_type checks a property of the test itself. These are forms of "direct" test selection.
$ dbt test --models customers$ dbt test --models orders
These are examples of "indirect" selection:
orders select models (whether by name or path). Any tests defined on
orders will be selected indirectly, and thereby included.
If a test depends on both
orders (e.g. a
relationships test between them), it will not be selected indirectly in the example above. Instead, it would only be selected indirectly if both parents are selected:
$ dbt test --models customers orders
The following examples should feel somewhat familiar if you're used to executing
dbt run with the
--models option to build parts of your DAG:
# Run tests on a model (indirect selection)$ dbt test --models customers# Run tests on all models in the models/staging/jaffle_shop directory (indirect selection)$ dbt test --models staging.jaffle_shop# Run tests downstream of a model (note this will select those tests directly!)$ dbt test --models stg_customers+# Run tests upstream of a model (indirect selection)$ dbt test --models +stg_customers# Run tests on all models with a particular tag (direct + indirect)$ dbt test --models tag:my_model_tag# Run tests on all models with a particular materialization (indirect selection)$ dbt test --models config.materialized:table
The same principle can be extended to tests defined on other resource types. In these cases, we will execute all tests defined on certain sources via the
source: selection method:
# tests on all sources$ dbt test --models source:*# tests on one source$ dbt test --models source:jaffle_shop# tests on one source table$ dbt test --models source:jaffle_shop.customers# tests on everything _except_ sources$ dbt test --exclude source:*
More complex selection
Through the combination of direct and indirect selection, there are many ways to accomplish the same outcome. Let's say we have a data test named
assert_total_payment_amount_is_positive that depends on a model named
payments. All of the following would manage to select and execute that test specifically:
$ dbt test --models assert_total_payment_amount_is_positive # directly select the test by name$ dbt test --models payments,test_type:data # indirect selection, v0.18.0$ dbt test --models payments --data # indirect selection, earlier versions
As long as you can select a common property of a group of resources, indirect selection allows you to execute all the tests on those resources, too. In the example above, we saw it was possible to test all table-materialized models. This principle can be extended to other resource types, too:
# Run tests on all models with a particular materialization$ dbt test --models config.materialized:table# Run tests on all seeds, which use the 'seed' materialization$ dbt test --models config.materialized:seed# Run tests on all snapshots, which use the 'snapshot' materialization$ dbt test --models config.materialized:snapshot
Note that this functionality may change in future versions of dbt.
Run tests on tagged columns
Because the column
order_id is tagged
my_column_tag, the test itself also receives the tag
my_column_tag. Because of that, this is an example of direct selection.
version: 2models:- name: orderscolumns:- name: order_idtests:tags: [my_column_tag]- unique
$ dbt test --models tag:my_column_tag
Currently, tests "inherit" tags applied to columns, sources, and source tables. They do not inherit tags applied to models, seeds, or snapshots. In all likelihood, those tests would still be selected indirectly, because the tag selects its parent. This is a subtle distinction, and it may change in future versions of dbt.
Run tagged tests only
This is an even clearer example of direct selection: the test itself is tagged
my_test_tag, and selected accordingly.
version: 2models:- name: orderscolumns:- name: order_idtests:- unique:tags: [my_test_tag]
$ dbt test --models tag:my_test_tag